Heart and soul

18 March 2008

Following the introduction of its new Series 4000 engines, MTU has added the Motivline driveline con

Following the introduction of its new Series 4000 engines, MTU has added the Motivline driveline control and automation system, which features an ADEC (Advanced Diesel Engine Control) engine managemen

Fundamentally, components create the motion and power that are the essence of construction equipment, and manufacturers of these assemblies have been busy improving their products. Let's look at power first.

Rexroth's new variable displacement pump, the A10VO series 53, gives equipment designers the choice of hydraulic-mechanical power control or electro-proportional differential pressure control in a medium-duty axial piston pump.

Hydro-mechanical control of the lightweight, compact unit will be attractive, for example, to prevent engine overloading of wheeled loaders, in which benefits of robustness and cost effectiveness are paramount. Such power control also frees the operator from throttle setting and allows him to concentrate on controlling machine movements.

On the other hand, electro-proportional adjustment of the swivel angle of the slush plate provides precise control of flows and electronic limit controls. Such electrically-adjustable control of differential pressures in hydraulic circuits allows fine control of actuators, for example, damping of cylinder end movements. The electronic nature of this control gives designers more flexibility and the owner upgrade potential.

The series 53 pumps, suitable for 250 to 315 bar applications, lay the groundwork for developing “intelligent”, fully electro-hydraulic systems, such as electro-hydraulic flow matching. this concept ensures sufficient flow in the system as a whole to meet varying demands from individual actuators and motors. Doing so improves system response to operator control changes, as well as reducing sensitivity to disturbances. Consequently, machine hydraulics “are more agile and less sensitive to vibration,” states the company.

Eaton Fluid Power has a new thread-less connector that plugs straight into the threaded port without an adapter. According to the company, the system is unique and makes on site repairs quicker and simpler.

Drivetrain

Other manufacturers are more effectively transferring generated power to the work. Dana offers its new Spicer four-speed, 800 Nm of output torque, HSR08 power shuttle transmission, for telehandlers wiThengines up to 88 kW. New, too, is the model 114 front axle, which completes the US-based company's range for 3 to 50 tonne front-end loaders.

For heavy-duty, off-road mining applications is Dana's Spicer Hercules 37R axle. It features rigid, three-piece support, as well as “extra-capacity” wheel-end bearings and heavy section components to accommodate a wide range of payloads, tracks, tyres, and chain combinations.

ZF has a new hydrostatic transmission for equipment up to 9.5 tonnes: the HC 85. It provides continuously variable vehicle speeds up 42 km/h and offers improved mechanical efficiencies, says the company, leading to fuel savings.

It has also created a new generation of its Ecomix product range, type CML 10 (Concrete Mixer Lowspeed) for concrete mixers up to 10 m3 drum capacity and transferring an output torque up to 62000 Nm. The company says they are -50% shorter, -20% lighter, tougher, more flexible, quieter, and easier to service.

Expansion

Following its award of the UK's Queen's Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category, which recognised three years of successive growth in world markets, wholly owned JCB subsidiary, International Transmissions (ITL) has expanded its product range and is distribution network.

New “distribution chains” have been established in the US, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine, and according to the company, the network will be “developed further” in the future.

On the product front ITL has recently launched its new 40 Series axles, which have a dynamic load capacity of about 4 tonnes, depending on the application. A double reduction axle, it is available in rigid and steering configurations.

The rigid option has an integrated, single speed transfer case suitable for mounting a hydrostatic motor. Brakes are wet disc situated either side of the differential housing.

Elsewhere, JCB's Dieselmax engine, which powered the JCB Dieselmax car to become the world's fastest diesel on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, US, in 2006, is available as a Stage IIIA/Tier 3 compliant 97, 108 and 120 kW power ratings.

Germany's MTU also has a new engine, the 4000 Series, for heavy duty mine vehicles, and matching Motivline driveline control and automation system. Engine start-up is transmitted electronically to the ADEC (Advanced Diesel Engine Control) engine management system. As soon as all the essential functions for starting the engine have been checked, the system sends an instruction to the POM (Power Output Module) electronic control unit.

The POM controls the power output of the starter motor and generator. Like the ADEC, it is mounted directly on the engine. Provided the starter battery voltage is within the required range, the POM gives the “all clear” signal to the starter motor.

Within a matter of seconds the entire sequence is completed and the engine is running and ready for work.

The Motivline driveline control and automation system with the ADEC and POM as its basic components enables straightforward engine integration in the vehicle, according to the company. The system includes control and monitoring of the electronics, with “plug & play” capability.

During operation, all information is transmitted by highspeed CAN data link from the ADEC and POM to the vehicle cab. There, a compact SAM intelligent interface module performs the interface function for subsequent data management.

Control systems

Power and motion must be controlled, of course, and components manufacturers are improving both the precision and flexibility of their offerings.

Rexroth, for example, now allows the replacement of pressure control loops in conventional flow-sharing hydraulic (LUDV) circuits. Its new electro-hydraulic flow matching (EFM) control system generates a signal to adjust pump output at the same time it sends signals to valves. this change in control system concept makes the pump an electro-hydraulic variable displacement pump, not a device in a pressure control loop.

Saurer Danfoss’ latest version of its GUIDE software, which supports its Plus+1 range of micro controllers, input/output modules, and components, “makes it easier than ever for customers to develop complex control solutions, display and service tools for electrohydraulic systems,” said Fred Bezat, the company's application software product portfolio manager.

The company has added, since the product's introduction at Intermat in 2000, blocks of software, tested and optimised for products in the range, make it easier for OEM engineers to add and integrate units to their designs.

One example is the use of a modular toolbox that allows OEM programmers to choose data to be shown on individual service screens for calibrating control systems for control system development, production, or maintenance tasks.

Using software to control components for optimal performance, too, is ZF. One product of ZF's efforts is its Ergolockup feature, a option that regulates the torque converter lockup clutch during low speeds to reduce fuel consumption of wheeled loaders, up to -15%, says the company.

It has also developed a new differential locking technique that engages whenever the differential is not interfering to protect driveline components and tyres. The feature, available as Ergotraction, provides fuel efficiencies as well.

Lastly, ZF's Ecotraction feature automatically disconnects four-wheel-drives at the transmission under detected, appropriate conditions, such as disconnection of one axle.

Intelligent design

Tecsis also has new control units available in the shape of a hydraulic anchor load measuring system and the new S Type force transducer. According to the company, the Ancor technique plays an increasingly important role in the field of geotechnics and underground engineering. Demand tends torwards “intelligent” anchors, which can be used in combination with specialised measurement technology for data aquisition.

Tecsis’ hydraulic ring force transducer, which is available in various versions for nominal forces up to 2000 kN, is the basic element of the system. The anchor load measuring system is available with a directly mounted pressure gauge or with an electrical output of 4 to 20 mA.

Using the ViSens portable measurement indicator it is possible to indicate the load directly on site. Alternaltively the data can be transfered to the EcoLog-Net eight-channel data logger, which can store up to 64000 measured values.

It is equipped with a digital display and extensive signal or switching functions, definable alarm set points and measurement intervals. The measured values can also be transfered via radio link over a distance of up to 300 m. LAN and USB can be used to connect to a PC.

The company's new S-Type force transducer can, according to Tecsis, be adjusted very easily. this unique feature, says the company, enables it to replace up to three conventional force transducers.

Using Tecsis’ PE01 programming unit users can reduce the measurement range from -100 to -50 or even -30%, with an accuracy of +/- 0.2% of the measurement range. An integrated overload protection allows for loads of up to +400% of the nominal force in both directions.

Another company with a plethora of new control modules is Eaton. New mobile valves include the CM80 and CM120 sectional open centre control valves (80 to 120 litres/minute), which are available with manual, pilot or EH (Enhanced Hydrualic) operation.

Elsewhere, the MDG sectional valve uses Eaton's Vickers DG4V3 valve components in a stackable, closed centre valve assembly. The valve is available in on/off and proportional configurations with high-pressure tank lines suitable for series circuit operation. The valve is available as a complete assembly or in sectional kit form.

The DMV sectional valve is also based on a Vickers DG valve design and is available in on/off and proportional operation. The valve includes load sense options and integrated pilot operated port check valves for low leakage requirements, and is available in kit form.

The company also has “the only twin spool valve on the market” in the shape of the new Ultronics ZTS16. According to the company, twin spool technology provides independent metre-in and metre-out capability by using integrated pressure and spool position sensors as well as on-board electronics.

Used wiTheaton's new EFX controllers and application development software (CANbus) OEMs have “infinite control” for communicating application level machine commands, adjusting programmable valve parameters, and monitoring real-time valve performance. Stand-alone programming allows developers to apply a complete Eaton control system or simply a stand-alone valve.

Display

Flexibitility, too, is one benefit of new display units, and dashboards may become a thing of the past. Rexroth's 640 x 480 pixel, color, high-resolution BODAS D13 unit displays any available vehicle information, including dynamic data from tachometers, for example. It can be programmed with the Windows-based BODAS-DCT (Display Confi!guration Tool) to design screens, context menus, and graphical elements. The device has an interface for overlaying input video images.

The D13 is a diagnosis and parameterisation tool, as well, when used together with other units from the BODAS modular system. Such use makes it unnecessary to connect a PC-based tool for service.

Sauer-Danfoss’ new information display product is the DP200 Series graphical terminal. It presents engine, hydraulic, and machine performance data in a mono-chrome, back-light display unit, and operators can choose from four different configurations.

The unit has an optional USB port for connecting a PC to a machine's CAN network, providing a gateway for measuring performance, diagnosing faults and adjusting parameters. Analogue or digital inputs can be fitted for sending and receiving signals from sensors not connected to the CAN network.

The DP200 comes with Sauer-Danfoss’ J1939 software package or as a PLUS+1TM Compliant version, which is programmable using its PLUS+1 GUIDE software.

Vibration elimination

The purpose of some components is to isolate equipment operators from effects of power and motion.

To that end, Grammer's two new seats with integrated controls do just that, according to the company. At the upper end is its Actimo Evolution, which comes in two versions: one for loaders and dump trucks, and another for excavators. Both versions’ controls provide tactile feedback and are arranged in two levels; those more frequently used are at the top of the control stick.

The seat automatically adjusts itself to driver weight and position, and it incorporates a low-natural-frequency suspension system to dampen vibration.

The MSG97EAC/742 looks similar to the Evolution model, but it includes an electronic system that dynamically adjusts the seat's pneumatic suspension to further reduce vibration transmitted to the operator.

CVG Global Construction's new KAB Seating 600 Series has a modular design to allow inter-changeability of air or mechanical suspensions, K Series seat uppers and PSM (Positioning System Modules), which provide optional combinations of slide rails; fore and aft Isolator; lateral isolator and customised pod control carrier.

The seats achieve ISO 7096 performance for construction vehicles in categories EM1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 without the need to change damping or springs for each category. They are suitable for articulated and rigid dump trucks (EM1), large and compact wheeled loaders (EM3/EM8), graders (EM4), backhoe loaders (EM5), bulldozers (EM6) and other large construction equipment such as excavators.

The Air 65 and Mechanical 61 Suspensions share common base plates for easy assembly and servicing. Both have low natural frequencies and are fine tuned to reduce vibration.

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